Imaging Guide

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Decprecated incarnations of tablet imaging walkthroughs are located at the Deprecated Imaging Guides.

Contents

CloneZilla Implementation

There is some patchy original documentation at the Clonezilla Guide and DRBL homepage.

Vocabulary

  • Server
    • machine that will NOT be imaged
    • runs Ubuntu 10.04 LTS <= server edition (or desktop edition)
    • running DRBL/Clonezilla/DHCP/NFS for clients on LAN
    • will pull hard drive image from host client
    • will push stored hard drive image to slave clients
    • hosts DHCP server for clients
    • can be connected to the internet, but also to a LAN with clients
  • Client
    • Machine whose hard drive will be imaged
    • On server LAN
    • Can PXE boot to server, but not connected to internet
  • Host Client
    • client with everything necessary installed on it
    • acts as a base for rest of (slave) clients
    • server pulls hard drive image from it
    • after server pulls hard drive image from it, it acts as a slave client
  • Slave Client/s
    • clients with old or outdated software or OS
    • receives image from server to write to hard drive

Import the repo key to your keyring

wget http://drbl.sourceforge.net/GPG-KEY-DRBL -O - | sudo apt-key add -

Edit sources.list

Create a new file /etc/apt/sources.list.d/clonezilla.list and add the following entries:

deb http://drbl.sourceforge.net/drbl-core drbl stable
deb http://drbl.sourceforge.net/drbl-core drbl unstable

(This also works if you add this line to /etc/apt/sources.list)

Now you can install clonezilla and drbl:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install clonezilla drbl

Install DRBL with CloneZilla Live

Download a CloneZilla Live ISO from http://clonezilla.org/downloads.php

No Longer Needed Install the live ISO using (replace VERSION with the applicable version):

sudo /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-ocs-live-prep -i clonezilla-live-VERSION.iso

Run the automated install procedure using:

sudo /opt/drbl/sbin/drbl4imp -p 40 -r 1 -z 3 -u 1

Fix the installed ISO files so they can be found by the CloneZilla configuration application:

sudo ln -s Clonezilla-live-initrd1.img Clonezilla-live-initrd.img
sudo ln -s Clonezilla-live-vmlinuz1 Clonezilla-live-vmlinuz

Setup after installing DRBL and CloneZilla

Setup booting for DHCP clients from other servers

To allow DHCP clients from other servers to use this Clonezilla server you'll need to modify "/usr/lib/mkpxeinitrd-net/initrd-skel/etc/linuxrc.conf":

Change
check_server_name="yes"
to
"check_server_name="no"

Also add the lines (where IP_OF_SERVER is the server IP and NAME_OF_SERVER is the name of the server):

siaddr="IP_OF_SERVER"
sname="NAME_OF_SERVER"

You must also edit "/tftpboot/node_root/sbin/init" by changing "-f1-3" to "-f1-2". This is done because "-f1-3" indicates to the server that 3 out of the four IP address slots will remain constant. On the Mines network, this is not the case as we have a Class B network. This task must be re-done if you re-run the DRBL installation.

Configuring NFS (Network File System)

DRBL will configure NFS for every individual tablet IP in /etc/exports. However, if you don't care about giving clients the same IP address every time they connect, this configuration file simply gets unwieldy and does not allow logins from IPs not on the list (a problem if you have another DHCP server managing your network). To make the configuration more manageable, you only need to have a single section for all IP addresses, and then change the IP address for that section to "*" (without the quotes). So, your /etc/exports file should look similar to the following:

/tftpboot/node_root *(ro,sync,async,no_root_squash,subtree_check)
/usr *(ro,sync,async,no_root_squash,subtree_check)
/opt *(ro,sync,async,no_root_squash,subtree_check)
/home *(rw,sync,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)
/var/spool/mail *(rw,sync,async,root_squash,no_subtree_check)
/images *(rw,sync,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)

CloneZilla will run into extreme difficulty if you boot too many systems at once, unless you change the configuration settings for NFS. These settings are stored in the file /etc/default/nfs-kernel-server, the important ones to change are the number of simultaneous NFS processes to use:

# Number of servers to start up
RPCNFSDCOUNT=100

and the number of simultaneous RPC mounts:

RPCMOUNTDOPTS="--manage-gids --num-threads=50"

When done, reboot the NFS server:

sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

Setup Apache for gPXE

If you have not installed apache already, install it using:

sudo apt-get install apache2

After installing apache you want to add the following to the "/etc/apache2/sites-available/default" file (within the VirtualHost tags):

        ## Below are entries for gPXE to boot tablets remotely:
        Alias "/gpxe" "/tftpboot/nbi_img"
        <Directory "/tftpboot/nbi_img">
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
        </Directory>

Once you've added this section restart apache with:

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Create gPXE USB Boot Disks

If you are not using the CloneZilla server to manage DHCP on your network then you cannot directly PXE boot the tablets on the network. However, you can create a USB boot disk that will PXE boot directly to your CloneZilla server. Below is a script that will generate such a disk; note, however, that this script will wipe the partition table of the disk you use it on (so don't use it on a drive you care about):


Archive.png Download gPXE Boot Disk Creation Script (1.1.0)

When it asks you about what server you should install from, ticc.mines.edu does not work, for some reason. However, ticc-1.mines.edu and the IP address of both the old and new server work fine.

Get Image From Source Tablet

All the imaging parameters are accessed by running the command:

sudo /opt/drbl/sbin/dcs

You can either use the Beginner mode (to use defaults) or the Expert mode if you know what you are doing.

  • Beginner mode
  1. Select all clients
  2. Clonezilla start
  3. Beginner mode
  4. Save-disk mode
  5. Choose to set name now (or later, it's your choice)
  6. Append short description of image onto end of default image name (date and time)
  7. Select which drive on client to save as image on server
  8. Have client do nothing ("-p true" option) when clone finishes (in case of error)
  9. Split image file at 1000000 MB (DO NOT USE 0!!!) increments so it doesn't split image file up
  10. Wait for DRBL to finish working
  11. PXE boot host client (or use pre-loaded USB image, coming soon!)
  12. Select Clonezilla: save disk sda as image (image name)
  • Expert Mode
  1. Select all clients
  2. Clonezilla start
  3. Expert mode
  4. Save-disk mode
  5. Choose to set name now (or later, it's your choice)
  6. Append short description of image onto end of default image name (date and time)
  7. Select which drive on client to save as image on server
    1. Set cloning priority to -q2 (partclone > partimage > dd) if not running Windows and max efficiency
    2. Set cloning priority to -q1 (dd only) if copying exotic filesystems (eg: unreadable by Linux or open source tools - check to see what GParted can read if unsure)
  8. -- Set cloning priority to -q (ntfsclone > partimage > dd if copying Windows (NTFS) partitions
  9. Force client to wait for confirmation before cloning (-c option) using space to activate option and enter to accept currently activated options
  10. Make sure to clone hidden data between MBR and 1st partition to save any recovery tool stored there (-j2 option)
  11. Have client do nothing ("-p true" option) when clone finishes (in case of error)
  12. Use parallel gzip compression (-z1p option), only use others if you know what you are doing!
  13. Split image file at 1000000 MB (DO NOT USE 0!!!) increments so it doesn't split image file up
  14. Wait for DRBL to finish working
  15. PXE boot host client (or use pre-loaded USB image, coming soon!)
  16. Select Clonezilla: save disk sda as image (image name)
  17. Confirm cloning operation
  • Page table errors seemed typical and didn't affect the quality of any images we tested, so it's probably safe to ignore these (although it would be useful to track down why the errors are popping up to see if there are any issues).
  • The performance for imaging one tablet were the same between beginner and expert mode (with many, but not all, defaults chosen in expert mode). Here are the results:
    • Beginner: Clonezilla finished copying approx. 9.060 GB of data in 11.8 mins with a sustained (average) rate of 762 MB/min
    • Expert: Clonezilla finished copying approx. 9.060 GB of data in 11.8 mins with a sustained (average) rate of 762 MB/min
/opt/drbl/sbin/drbl-ocs -b -q2 -c -j2 -sc -p true -z1p -i 1000000 -l en_US.UTF-8 startdisk save <File Name> sda

Broadcast image

After you receive the image, you have to put it back out to the other tablets. Rerun the imaging mode selection program:

sudo /opt/drbl/sbin/dcs

When you are broadcasting an image, you have two options. You can wait for a certain amount of time or a certain number of clients. I suggest the “number of clients” option, as it should prevent the problem we've experienced with our dd/udpcast script of missing one client and having to reboot all the clients. You can either use the Beginner mode (to use defaults) or the Expert mode if you know what you are doing.

  • Beginner mode
  1. Select all clients
  2. Clonezilla start
  3. Beginner mode
  4. Restore-disk mode
  5. Have client/s do nothing ("-p true" option) when clone finishes (in case of error)
  6. Select image to restore
  7. Select which drive on client to overwrite (THE ENTIRE DRIVE WILL BE COMPLETELY OVERWRITTEN!!!)
  8. Multicast if LAN supports it (check with network admin) - fastest option
  9. Select clients-to-wait so imaging doesn't start until all clients are ready to image
  10. Select number of clients to restore
  11. Confirm environment is ready for imaging
  12. Wait for DRBL to finish working
  13. PXE boot slave client/s (or use pre-loaded USB image, coming soon!)
  14. Select Clonezilla: multicast restore (image name) to sda
  • Expert mode
  1. Select all clients
  2. Clonezilla start
  3. Expert mode
  4. Restore-disk mode
  5. Accept default options unless you know what you're doing!
    1. (Recommended) Use the existing partition table if you want to keep the layout of the hard drive, or if you are simply replacing a single partition (instead of the entire drive)
    2. Create a partition table proportional to the (I think) existing partitions (-k option)
    3. Use dd to create partition (-j0 option) if saved entire drive (including boot sector)
  6. We want our tablets to be standalone tablets when they are done, so do NOT select any -y options
  7. Have client/s do nothing ("-p true" option) when clone finishes (in case of error)
  8. Select image to restore
  9. Select which drive on client to overwrite (THE ENTIRE DRIVE WILL BE COMPLETELY OVERWRITTEN!!!)
  10. Multicast if LAN supports it (check with network admin) - fastest option
  11. Select clients-to-wait so imaging doesn't start until all clients are ready to image
  12. Select number of clients to restore
  13. Confirm environment is ready for imaging
  14. Wait for DRBL to finish working
  15. PXE boot slave client/s (or use pre-loaded USB image, coming soon!)
  16. Select Clonezilla: multicast restore (image name) to sda
  • Page table errors seemed typical and didn't affect the quality of any images we tested, so it's probably safe to ignore these (although it would be useful to track down why the errors are popping up to see if there are any issues).
  • The performance for imaging one tablet were the same between beginner and expert mode (with many, but not all, defaults chosen in expert mode). Here are the results:
    • Beginner: Clonezilla finished copying approx. 9.060 GB of data in 6.718 mins with a sustained (average) rate of 1344 MB/min
    • Expert: Clonezilla finished copying approx. 9.060 GB of data in 6.732 mins with a sustained (average) rate of 1344 MB/min

Comments

Each interactive command ends with a statement like “Next time you want to do this, run the following command”, giving you a method to bypass the interactive part by using a huge command line instead. If you want to create scripts to handle all of this, then capture these commands (there are many flags!).

The Grand Unified Tablet Build

TICC is now using a single build to image all of our tablets. This build requires a script to handle the differences between the tablets, as of Ubuntu 10.10 we only require separate Xorg.conf files, a patched wacom driver, and a separate "pen button" configuration for each of the supported models. The script currently supports the tc1100, tc4200, tc4400, 2710p, and 2740p tablets. The GUTB scripts are now available in the TICC Personal Package Archive on Launchpad. You can install this PPA by going to the System -> Administration -> Software Sources menu and adding the source "ppa:csm-ticc/csm-ticc-ppa". After installing the PPA you can install the GUTB using the command:

sudo apt-get install gutb

Once installed, the script will ensure on boot that the appropriate settings are applied (allowing the script to be installed once and imaged to all the other tablets).

Detection of Tablet Model

A simple hash of the SMBIOS information is used to create a unique identifier for each tablet. The script '/usr/share/gutb/generic/dmihash.sh' can be used to generate this id. Provided that the manufacturer of your computer has appropriately filled in the SMBIOS then you can use this script to generate a code for your PC. To add a hash to the list so that it correspond to a particular model you must tack on the result of the dmi hash script to the file '/usr/share/gutb/gernic/hashes.sh'. This file is formatted 'addHash <hash> <name>'; for example, the tc1100 entry appears as:

####### # DMI Hash                       # Tablet Name
addHash 0087849ff65c7b4f2c13b754ed4a1b38 tc1100

Differences in the Wacom Driver

The tc1100 and tc4200 have two major differences in how they utilize the Wacom pen: the tc1100 has no eraser and the side-buttons have different IDs on the two tablets. To resolve the eraser issue, there is a separate xorg.conf for each tablet. To handle the button codes being different there is a separate folder of scripts for each pen button for the two tablets, when the tablet starts up a symbolic link is made to the appropriate script folder. A ".profile" is simply added to the user's home folder containing the instructions to convert the Wacom pen button clicks into key presses:

xsetwacom set stylus Button30 "CORE KEY SHIFT F1"
xsetwacom set stylus Button31 "CORE KEY SHIFT F2"
xsetwacom set stylus Button32 "CORE KEY SHIFT F3"

Differences in the Video Driver

The tc1100 uses nVidia's proprietary video card driver while the tc4200 uses the open-source Intel i810 driver. Due to this issue there is a separate xorg.conf for each tablet. While the tablets will work without these changes, without xorg.conf you will need to reconfigure the graphics driver at every boot.

Important things to remember in future builds

Don't forget to install:

  • kile
  • Mathematica
  • LabVIEW

Make a set of key-bindings for the "fn" keys.

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